Pilates Benefits for all Ages

The word Pilates tends to evoke images of Jennifer Aniston and other Hollywood names.  It has been one of the hot fitness trends for some time, now. Even pro athletes are taking on Pilates to complement their regular training regime. However, Pilates is here to stay and is a great method of exercise for the 50+ population with many benefits to offer.

The heart of Pilates training is strengthening the core. When the core in strengthened, all over body power, flexibility, balance, and stamina are greatly increased.  As you learn to breathe and move more efficiently with greater body awareness, performance improves noticeably.

Leg and knee injuries from your college days that have been plaguing you are greatly diminished due to increased flexibility and uniform body development. Pilate’s works a strong foundation from the inside out and thereby focuses on opposite and supporting muscles rather than just one or two larger muscle groups.

As you gain strength and flexibility through your Pilates training, you will see in improvement in your performance in other sports or activities that you participate in.  Golfers see an increase spinal rotation as well as core strength which in turn gives more power to their swing. Runners improve balance and joint issues.

As you learn to strengthen the core, a greater mind-body connection occurs. This creates more body awareness, reduces injury, develops coordination and flexibility, as well as improves balance and endurance. All of these elements are needed for success in the activities we want to try, but also for stronger overall fitness and health for life-long fitness.

People of all ages to start Pilates training see a noticeable improvement in balance after just a few sessions. The primary cause of injuries for the elderly is falls due to a decline in balance in the senior years.  We all will age much better as we keep fit. But the injury prevention factor that Pilates brings is a great reason for the 50+ population to get in the Pilates game!  Pilates is an excellent alternative to typical fitness programs due to its lower impact on joints and focus on stability, core balance, breathing, and body awareness.

Featured photo source: Pilateson10th.com.

The Three Best forms of Exercise for 50-Plus

Has a recent visit to the doctor left you with strict instructions to start exercising after a few too many years of not doing so? If you are over 50 and beginning to experience some of the normal signs of a–(we don’t say the “a” word, here), then starting a whole new exercise regime can not only seem a bit daunting, but confusing in regards to what to try and how to start.

We hesitated coming up with a list because we don’t want to send the message that there is anything you cannot do. However, reality is that some of us have joint issues, or old college injuries, or other health issues that may limit your options. After getting your Dr.’s ok, don’t stress about finding that “perfect” form of exercise for you. Half the fun is in the journey! This is a great opportunity for you to try out some activities you have wondered about or even told yourself you would never do. Here are some of the top ways to exercise for 50-plus individuals:

  • Pilates is a fabulous workout that has the lower impact that other body-weight exercises do. Pilates will challenge you as you build your core- the deeper abdominal muscles that also support the spine. As a result, back issues, posture, flexibility, and stability are all improved with Pilates. For those who have not exercised in some time, Pilates will help you to gain an incredible amount of flexibility. For all of us, bone density is increased in the spine and hip as a result of the standing leg exercises.
  • Aerobic activity is needed for a balanced workout routine. Fortunately, there are many options to challenge yourself aerobically such as power walking, light jogging, hiking, swimming, and cycling. If it has been a while, start with brisk walking for 5 minutes a few days a week. As you feel your heart rate responding, work up to 30 minutes of non-stop aerobic activity. One way to increase your aerobic capacity quickly is with interval training. Make sure you have your Dr’s ok for this.
  • Weight training is very important as we age. Bone loss is happening daily and weight training is one of the best ways to not only slow down that loss, but it can actually build bone density. Make sure to work with a personal trainer who is educated in training people 50+ and understands the various needs and potential modifications And women, don’t forget to get in on the action and learn weight training techniques for you! It is not just a guy’s thing!

There are countless other options out there for you to try. Join a local hiking group, cycle club, gym or YMCA to connect up with like-minded people. Whatever you choose, make sure to keep it fun and keep trying new options. Remember, the sky is the limit…hey!  How about skydiving, or paragliding, or…

Featured photo source: Pixabay.com.

Winter Swimming Workouts

You may just find yourself this time of the year dreaming of white sandy beaches and warm water to sooth your soul, make it happen this winter and hit the pool for some of your workouts. Not only can pool workouts help you take a mini-vacation, there is something that touches most of us when we experience water that is healing and relieves stress. Pool workouts have a peaceful element to them with just you and the water and the rhythm. Also, switching up your workout routine and changing what you normally do for cardio can give your workouts the charge they just may need. Swimming is a great metabolism booster while sculpting your muscles at the same time. And who knows, you may just get addicted to the water and never get out!

Gear needed:

  • Kickboard
  • Fins
  • Watch or clock with a second hand


The basics to know:

  • Start at the start with the basic crawl stroke, getting to the point where you can swim at least 100 yards without stopping. It may be tough at first, but you will be surprised at how quickly you will catch on
  • Test out your RPE (rate of perceived exertion) on a scale of 1-10 so you know approximately what your rates are.
  • Learn to do a few laps for warm up at the start of each workout. Rotate through the basic strokes: free style, breast stroke, and back stroke.

For workouts try the following to get yourself started:

  • 100 yd. Warm up, RPE 3
  • 50 yd. side flutter kick on kickboard , RPE 3

Make sure to kick from your hips, not your knees, keep looking up and knees and side of head in the water

  • 50 yds. front flutter kick with kickboard, RPE 4, breathing alternately to both sides
  • 5 x 50 yds. swim (no board) at RPE 7 for continuous laps, be=breathing every 3 strokes. Rest at the wall if you need to, but try to keep that as short of an interval as possible
  • 2 x 50 yds. swim easy RPE to recover.
  • 100 yds. swim at moderate intensity, RPE 6
  • 100 yds. cool down, RPE 3

Once the above workout is starting to feel less of a challenge, congratulate yourself and move onto some variety and intermediate to advanced workouts. My Daily Swim is a great resource jam-packed with tips and workout ideas. Let us know how your water workouts are going and please share with us all what you do in the pool to challenge yourself and get fit.

Featured photo source: Wikipedia Commons.

3 Evil Myths about Women and Weight Lifting

In the quest for fitness, women have tended to focus on unhealthy, restricting diets, hours of cardio, and endless, boring spot targeting exercises. In addition to making a lot of people HATE working out, this has resulted in the missing component of strength as a part of women’s overall fitness and health, through weight lifting. Some myths have been perpetuated over the years and maybe you have believed some of them? If so, let us clear things up for you.

Older Women shouldn’t weight train because of possible injuries and osteoporosis.

If anything, the opposite is true. The more you train with weights and get stronger, the stronger your bones become, you develop critical muscle mass, and reduce the chances of bone breaks and other injuries. Post menopausal women who strength train, preserve their bone density, as well as overall body balance, which reduces the chance of falling. Check out this 75 year old weight lifting grandma and you will change your thoughts on older women and weight lifting.

Women should train differently than men.

Regardless of your sex, lifting weights, and heavy weights, makes you stronger. Women will not gain the bulky muscles that men do unless they are taking supplements specific to that goal and eating to gain size. Women simply do not have the testosterone to build that kind of bulk. Men will gain bulk, but women will get tight, shapely muscles. Lifting lighter weights to sets of 20 will not make you stronger or gain tone, but it will take up valuable time in the gym. Muscles need to be challenged and broken down, then rebuilt. This can only happen effectively with heavy weights. Women and men can follow the same training plan and because their bodies respond differently, the results will differ.

Lots of cardio is the best way to lose fat, not weight training

Less cardio and more time spent on strength training will result in more efficient weight loss than if you do cardio alone in that same time frame. Proper strength training with heavy weights breaks down the muscles. Over the next 24-48 hours, they are built back up. During that time, your body is using more calories and energy to build those muscles. Your metabolism ramps up even if you are sedentary after a workout. This is known as the “after-burn” in weight training.

So ignore those evil myths, and focus on the many benefits for women who strength train. Share with us some myths you had believed over the years.

What is Metabolic Resistance Training (MRT), and What Makes it so Successful?

Metabolic Resistance Training is a fitness method that maximizes fat loss and stimulates muscle growth as it best utilizes how your body responds to types of exercise. EPOC happens days after exercisers have completed short sessions of high intensity strength training workouts. Their bodies continue to burn several hundred more calories for days after the workout sessions. This occurs because the energy needed for EPOC is derived from fat.

MRT is not just a hard weight training session. It is markedly different from typical strength training programs in that it involves structural and compound exercises to increase both calorie burn and your metabolic rate during and after workouts.

Structural and compound exercises are those that involve multiple joints and large muscle groups such as quads, biceps, hamstrings, etc. Training this way allows you to hit more muscle groups in a shorter amount of time with greater intensity since there is little to no rest in between sets.

You will know that it is high intensity because it makes you breathless and sweating, pushing your body to its limit. You will feel a burning sensation deep in your muscles.

A typical MRT session will focus on your entire musculoskeletal system rather than focusing on particular muscle groups. Exercisers will do 2-3 sets of a superset with only a 30-45 second rest between, then on to the next superset.

Benefits of MRT:

  • Serious fat burning
  • Builds muscle more quickly
  • Increases metabolic rate
  • burns more calories
  • Promotes lipolysis for improved fat loss hormones
  • Increases cardiovascular capacity

Perhaps the idea of gaining massive muscles like those “muscle beach” dudes at the gym turns you off. Not to worry, you can utilize MRT for just 25 minutes, 2-3 times a week for 4 weeks to jump start your fat burning and muscle building. There is no need to go all out multiple times every week, week in and week out. Make sure not to do MRT on consecutive days. Here is a helpful YouTube MRT workout for real women. And here is a great one for the guys. In reality, both workouts are full of great ideas and beneficial for all of us, give ’em a try!

Featured photo source: Wikipedia Commons.

10 Motivational Tips For When the Weather Outside is Frightful

Our lovely fall weather seems to be wasting away quickly into plain ol’ yucky rain and pre-winter crud. There is a good reason bears and other creatures go into hibernation during this kind of weather. To help you not fall into hibernation mode and to make the most of even the dreariest weather, we have come up with some great motivational tips to stick with your fitness regimen in the months to come.

  • Getting up out of your warm flannel sheets can be a bear when the house is cold. Set your programmable thermostat to heat up the house 15 minutes before you wake up so that you can get up and get going with one less excuse to hold you back. If your thermostat isn’t programmable, investing in a new one is just a few dollars and could just be the thing to keep you going through the winter…in addition to the energy savings you will see!
  • Set out all of your workout clothes, water bottle, and gear the night before. Pack your gym bag, set up your yoga mat, dumbbells, kettle balls, or Bosu ball so everything is ready to go and calling your name.
  • Write up a variety of messages on colorful slips of paper with reminders of how good your feel after a workout, pics of yourself at your fitness best, motivational quotes, or the many health benefits of working out. Whatever you know are YOUR greatest reasons for working out, jot those down. In the morning, pull one slip out at random and surprise yourself with your “Workout Inspiration of the Day”
  • If it is the cold weather that is keeping you inside, have your coziest hoodie waiting to go in the dryer and warm it up just before leaving the house for the gym.
  • Re-create morning sunlight with a Wake-up-light to help set your inner clock to get moving even when it is still dark these winter mornings. Setting your body clock to get going these dark mornings is a huge help.
  • Plan your workout breakfast the night before so you are less likely to cast about for something to eat in the morning. When you start off your day in “healthy mode” you are more likely to continue it by not skipping out on your workout.
  • The night before, check out a few workout videos on YouTube for some fresh inspiration. Just one new idea is all it takes to get you excited to try it out the next morning.
  • Get a workout buddy. Even if some days your schedules prevent you from working out together, just agreeing to a text check in and knowing your partner will be counting on you to also check in, will keep you both going strong.
  • Set up a fresh, new workout music playlist so that the next day you have new tunes to get you jazzed.
  • Print up a pic of a great holiday outfit you will reward yourself with, that awesome new bike, or the entry form for that spring triathlon or Tough Mudder race you have been meaning to enter. Keeping your eyes on the goal (literally) can keep up your motivation and focus

Whatever floats your boat (especially for you kayakers); learn to adopt the tricks and motivational tips that keep you in the game and on top of your workouts these dark, cold months ahead. Let us know what motivational tricks work for you!

Featured photo credit Wikipedia Commons.

Tips for Weight Lifting and Body Building as You Age

As we age, our bodies naturally begin to lose muscle and bone density.  Continued bone loss can lead to osteoporosis, muscle and joint pain, and injuries as well as increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases. However, it is no reason to throw in the towel, as there are things we can do daily to slow down or even stop that process.  Studies long have shown that weight training not only slows down muscle and bone loss, but it can increase your body’s protein and metabolite levels; both of which stabilize the immune system. According to the Journal of Applied Physiology, performing prolonged resistance type exercise training improves functional performance as well as increases skeletal muscle mass in the elderly.

If you have not done much weight training before, it can be intimidating and even bewildering to head to the gym and just start. We highly recommend setting up an appointment or 4 with a certified personal trainer.  Most gyms have them on site or asking around can get you some good recommendations.  Weight training can do amazing things for your health, but can also cause life long injuries if not done correctly.  Do NOT assume that badass muscle-bound individual is lifting correctly or with good form.

Life long legendary body builder Ric Drasin has some great tips to weight training in your 50’s and beyond. He has learned as he is aging to do lighter weights and more sets, as well as using more machines and less free weights than what he used as a body builder.

Screen Shot 2014 01 18 at 3.23.32 PMOnce you have met with a trainer to gain a basic understanding of how to lift safely and with good form, how repetitions and sets work in your favor, then here are some tips to get you started with confidence and success for body building as you age. Check out this article for more details and tips from a pro.

  • Set a regular schedule and you are more likely to keep it. Put your weight training into your calendar as appointments and schedule other events around them. It won’t be long before it is a regular part of your week and you will miss it when you skip it.
  • Avoid mini workouts! Yes, it is possible to get a full body workout done in 20 minutes, but this should be saved for when you are in a pinch, not a regular routine each week.  Especially when you are first getting started building your fitness through weights, it takes months of regularly planned routines to be comfortable and familiar with what works for your body.
  • Make sure you have comfortable, moisture wicking clothing and quality workout shoes for support. They may cost more up front, but proper support will help prevent injuries and protect your joints.
  • Don’t forget a good warm up, stretching, and cool down.  Weight training on “cold” muscles can directly cause injuries.  No short cuts!
  • Leave the ear buds behind-at first.  When you are first learning the movements and form, you need to have full focus and concentration.  It can be too easy to get lost in your tunes and also lose good form.

Here is a motivational video with training tips for real life women ages 50 and over.  Joe Hashey has some great tips for getting started, preventing injuries, and understanding repetitions and sets.

What are some things that have worked for you as you have started or continued your weight training programs in these years over 50?  We would love to hear your stories.

Workouts at Work!

Some days it is impossible to get that workout in in the morning or after work when we are facing work deadlines.  Americans have desk jobs that require sitting at the computer for hours on end.  It is not helpful when our employers don’t have a company gym onsite.  We don’t advocate substitution of “office workouts” for your normal routine on a regular basis, but they can be helpful to keep us moving throughout the day instead of allowing our bodies to go stagnant. Here are a few to keep the blood moving through your veins and muscles challenged, with some workouts at work.

Office chair squats: With your feet a little more than shoulder width apart, stand in front of your office chair. If your chair is on wheels, take extra caution or use a standard chair. (Make sure that as you squat, your knees should not push forward past the front of your toes and your back should remain straight. When you do this, your butt pushes back and gives you the best squat form.) Lower down slowly, but do not quite sit on the chair, keep your back straight and eyes forward and hold for a few seconds, then slowly return to standing.  Do 2 sets of 10 reps.

Inner Thigh Adduction:  Use a rolled towel or sweater to squeeze between your thighs during this exercise.  Keeping your abs tucked, squeeze the towel as hard as you can for a few seconds.  Try to work your way up to 10 or 20 seconds.  Release, then repeat again 3 sets of 20 reps.

Leg Extensions: If you have some ankle weights, this exercise is even better! Sit straight in your chair, toward but not on the front edge of the chair, resting hands on the arm rests or chair sides. Flex your quads as you extend your leg straight out in front of you. Hold for 3-5 seconds, and then curl back down to starting position. Repeat 15-20 times before alternating to the other leg. Remind yourself to do this one throughout your day.

Office Chair Ab workout: Make sure this is done on a wheel-less chair. Sit up straight in the chair with your shoulders back.  While sitting on the chair front edge, place your hands on the arm rests. Keeping your back straight, lift your knees up to your chest and then slowly back down. Repeat 15-20 times for 3 sets. Not allowing your toes to touch the ground in between each rep will provide a greater challenge.  You can vary this to challenge your obliques by rotating your knees to the side on the way up and down.

Desk pushups:  Stand up and position yourself a few feet from the front edge of your desk with your feet together.   With your palms about a shoulder width away, keep your back and legs in a straight line and lower yourself to the front edge of the desk. Push back to start position for as many reps as possible, aiming for 15 reps.  Do 3-4 sets

Desk triceps dips: Similar to pushups, face away from the desk with palms down, keeping your feet together. Bend your elbows and bring buttocks forward so you can dip straight down along the front of the desk.  Dip until your upper arms are parallel with the floor. Push back up to start position.  Both the dip down and push back up should be slow for optimum results.

If you have a private office, rather than a cubical, most of the above exercises are easy to fit into your day here and there.  Here is another total workout that can be done at your office. Also, consider replacing your office chair with an exercise ball and incorporate those exercises into your day.

A Perspective on Spinning from Live Love Flow

By Jaime Scates Schmitz from LiveLoveFlowYoga.com

OK, now it’s time for honesty. I do not love spinning the way I love yoga. But I see it as a necessary evil. Before Live Love Flow, I operated a yoga studio for 3.5 years that offered just yoga (Mountain Flow Yoga in Madrona). Yoga all by itself was never quite enough for me. I had a spin bike at home, which I used often and I ran to keep the cardio conditioning up. As mountain biking is the second greatest love of my life, just behind yoga, the addition of a spin studio seemed logical. If I lived somewhere that riding 3-5 days a week up big hills on the dirt was a possibility, you might not find me in the spin studio. But since I have to hoof it up to the mountains with my bike packed away in the car, that’s just too many hours out of the day. So you’ll find me in the spin studio a lot! And don’t get me wrong. I LOVE the music, I LOVE the energy, I appreciate the intensity and therefore the efficiency. And well, it does make me feel AMAZING!

Photo credit: Wikipedia Commons.

Photo source: Wikipedia Commons.

Spinning is an amazing way for people who are getting older to start or complement a fitness routine:

  1. When you’re inside on a stationary bike, you’re not going to fall or get hit by a car. There’s very minimal risk of needing a hip replacement from falling!
  2. When the bike is ridden in the ergonomically correct way, there’s zero impact on the joints and it keeps them lubricated by using them.
  3. Spinning increases serotonin and endorphins so we feel amazing.
  4. The ticker needs that cardio conditioning.
  5. One of the leading contributors to aging is the decrease in production of HGH (Human Growth Hormone). Don’t get a shot; you can become dependent and stop making your own naturally. But DO high intensity interval training – we do a ton in spinning. ”High intensity burst training in which one’s heart rate bursts above their anaerobic threshold (best established by VO2 max testing) for 30 second intervals five or more times in a workout. This engages super-fast twitch muscle fibers, which release HGH naturally.”
  6. You can really go at your own pace. The teacher will set a cadence and a gear; if it’s too hard, scale back. No one’s pressuring you; it’s your ride!

So my number one goal in life is not to be super fit, super fast or super awesome on the bike. It’s to be super conscious, super awake, super alive, FREE and vibrant. I’ve wrapped my brain around how spinning supports this for me.

As we’re riding, the mind puts up a lot of resistance: it’s really HARD in the class, so the noisy mind loves to complain, to pull us onto the path of least resistance, to bitch and moan. I see spinning as an amazing opportunity to “shush” that part of my mind. If I can cultivate equanimity to that suffering and silence the mental bulls*#t to face the challenge, I win!

Spinning also teaches an amazing lesson about transcending/transmuting our drama and our trauma. I don’t want to scare anyone, but I don’t want to minimize how hard we work in there; it’s kind of nuts! However, the minute we walk out of the room we feel AMAZING and we put the story of the ride and all of the suffering it evoked into the past where it belongs. We don’t relive the ride over and over and over again the way we do everything else that hurts, i.e. heart-ache, legal battles, neglect, addiction, being “wronged” by another, failure, embarrassment, suffering etc. Nope, we hop off the bike an we pop that ride into the past.

Now THAT’s a powerful lesson in movin’ right on through, moving higher and increasing consciousness.

I do think that anyone who’s using just the spin side of the studio is missing the whole point of Live Love Flow, but heck, they’re welcome and maybe the energy that’s being created in that amazing space, sincerely dedicated to evolving consciousness will seep into their field and we’ll find them in the yoga studio.


A Perspective on Yoga from Live Love Flow

By Jaime Scates Schmitz from LiveLoveFlowYoga.com

When Tony first asked me to do a piece for FitAfterFifty.com I was reticent: #1, I’m not 50 or even that close and #2, I cringe a bit whenever someone refers to me as a fitness guru . . . I am not.

In response to #1, I thought ‘What the heck do I know about being fit after fifty?’ And in response to #2, barring a car falling on my child, you will probably never see me lift a heavy thing.

I pushed through resistance item #1 when I thought of my amazing parents and my cute mom, who while still vital, attractive and lovely, is seeing her body wear down. Then I thought of my friend, student and current teacher-trainee, Nancy Richards, who at 64 moves like a 30-year-old in yoga, crushes it on the spin bike, hikes, bikes and skis. WOW. I’ll take that.

I pushed through resistance item #2 because I LOVE yoga (yes it’s a work out, but at its core it’s a spiritual practice of which the work-out is a tiny portion). I’m also happy to ride indoors to stay conditioned for mountain biking (my second greatest love behind yoga) and I believe all of the research about intense cardiovascular exercise increasing HGH, endorphins, serotonin etc. – I’ll take all of that because there’s nothing that I love more than feeling AMAZING.

As soon as Tony and I started the interview I knew it was a great idea. It was an opportunity to talk about my passions to a new audience.

Watch the interview here:


Yoga is amazing for EVERYBODY. It’s especially amazing for bodies that want to age gracefully. In yoga, we move through our entire range of motion and all of our little accessory (rarely used) muscles. We also work tremendously hard on the core, which protects and lengthens the spine. Flexibility and balance are two of the first pieces of athleticism and health that people lose as they age, and yoga helps to improve those areas as well.

We spend a lot of time upside down in down-dog, forward-folds and inversions. These poses have amazing benefits to calming the parasympathetic nervous system and they are officially working against gravity – take that sagging skin! We do work incredibly hard, doing a lot of lunges, chattaranga pushups, side planks etc. We are using our own body weight to build bone density, which is another must for people over fifty!

Photo credit: Pixabay

Photo credit: Pixabay

So that’s just a tiny list of the health benefits of yoga. But my favorite thing about yoga in its ability to invite people to age gracefully is simply the fluidity and grace we introduce.

We hold so much tension and density in our bodies because it gives us the illusion of control. We also hold all of our pain, failure, drama and trauma as little energy nodules in the body called samskaras.

Everything in the universe, including humans, flows in an energetic pattern called a tube torus. When the tube torus is open and flowing freely we are clean, clear, bright, free and alive. In nature we can see examples of clean energy patterns flowing together. Nature balances, syncs, synergizes and coalesces with itself. We are intended to synergize in the same way and our tube torus is supposed to flow freely.

Sadly, due to all of the density, tension and samskaras we hold in our bodies (as well as a lot of external influences from the electromagnetic soup we swim in and the SAD – standard American diet) our energetic patterns are generally not flowing properly. We can see in the high rates of addiction that are currently in existence (I just read that while only 10 percent of Americans are truly addicted to alcohol, a full 30 percent are alcohol-dependent). Other examples include depression, numbing with the dumbing of American TV, the acceptance of hard-core violence and soft-core porn into our living rooms every night (not mine!), environmental degradation, poverty, famine, the sex trade of children, war, genetically modified food, disease etc. By all of these things, we see that we are clearly NOT syncing with nature in the way that was our birthright, in the way spirit intended for us.

In yoga, we move through our entire energetic sphere with grace and fluidity. When we do this with a burning desire to connect to consciousness, to cleanse our habits and our patterns, to free ourselves from our rigidity, to move higher, we just might make a little progress in that 60 – 75 minutes on our mats.

There’s something about moving with fluidity and grace, the way we do in yoga that also breaks down linear thinking. It helps us confuse the mind, move in a circle, play. Einstein said, “Confusion is the brink of discovery.” When we’re confused, doing something new, and pushing our edges we create new neural pathways (we’re pretty addicted to the ones we always use, and most of those stories aren’t so pleasant). So get a little lost, get a little confused, try something new, change your brain and explore that brink of discovery!

If we all work hard on cleaning up our own energy, elevating our own vibration, bringing ourselves into greater alignment and higher consciousness, then sooner or later that nasty list from above will start to shrink and lose it’s hold over humanity.